高考英語閱讀理解專題(四)猜測詞義


高考英語閱讀理解專題(四)猜測詞義   

                             

 

這類題包括猜測單詞、短語、句子的意思和判斷指代內容。

常見的提問方式】:

The word “  ” in paragraph     can best be replaced by       

The underlined word “    ” most probably means        

By saying “    ”, the author means       

The expression “     ” is closest to      

According to the passage, the phrase “    ” suggests       

The underlined part “       ” (in Para    )  means      .

猜詞技巧】:

一、通過定義、解釋來推測詞義。

】:

1. Anthropology is the scientific study of man. 根據解釋可知anthropology就是研究人類的科學? 

高考示例】:

10.Throughout the history of the artsthe nature of creativity has remained constant to artistsNo matter what objects they selectartists are to bring forth new forces and forms that cause change-to find poetry where no one has ever seen or experienced it before

The underlined word “poetry” most probably means          .

A .an object for artistic creation                B. a collection of poems

C. an unusual quality                                D .a natural scene

where no one has ever seen or experienced it before可知poetry是指一種不同尋常的品質。答案C

歸納】:文中某些生詞的詞義,在下文中有解釋或說明:或以定義?定語從句?同位語的形式出現; 或用逗號、破折號、冒號、分號、引號和括號等。標誌詞(短語)有:that is to say, or, similarly, stand for, in other wordsnamely, or other, say, i.e. 以及be, mean, deal with, be considered, to be, be called, be known as,define, represent, refer to, signify 等。

二、通過下文的例子猜詞義 。  

例如】:: 1.Generally, we like to read periodicals, such as Time Magazine, Newsweek, Reader's Digest, etc. 根據例子,可推出periodical的意思是期刊? 

歸納】:常由such aslikefor examplefor instance similarly, like, just as, also, as well as等連詞列舉。

? 根據詞語之間的對等關係猜詞義

例如】:The hot tropical weather created a feeling of lassitude and encouraged laziness.

    這個句中的and連接created a feeling of lassitudeencouraged laziness兩個並列成分? Createdencouraged相對應,lassitudelaziness相對應,由此可猜出lassitude困乏無力?無精打采等意思? 

歸納】:其標誌詞:and, or, still等。

? 根據對比?轉折關係猜詞義

例如】:

1.If you agree, write “Yes”; if you dissent, write “No”. 根據前後對比,可以推斷出dissentagree的意思相反,意為不同意?不讚成?
  【高考示例】:

2.The house looked quite normal outsidebut inside it was very exotic with fascinating objects on display

Which of the definitions is closest in meaning to the word “exotic” in the third paragraph?

A. Messy and untidy.                 B. Rich and expensive

CComfortable and calming.          DForeign and unusual

思路點撥:由文章第三段第一句話中的“but”轉折詞,可知前後意思形成對比,再根據“fascinating objects on display”可推斷出來。答案D

歸納】:表示對比、轉折關係的詞(短語)有:butunlike, not, however, though, otherwise, neverthess, while,(on the one hand…on the other handfor one thing…for another despite, in spite of, in contrast instead of, rather than和眾多反義詞。

? 根據因果關係猜詞義
  【例如】:

1.Mary didn't notice me when I came into the classroom, because she was completely engrossed in his reading. 主句 當我走進教室的時候,瑪麗沒有注意到我?據此,可推斷從句中的engross使全神貫注?吸引的意思?
  【高考示例】:

2.I thought to myself that we adults usually make a big“ to do” over the younger one because she is the one who seems more easily hurtWe do it with the best of intentions

The underlined expression make a big“ to do” over  means…    

A. show much concern about                B. have a special effect on

C1istjobs to be done for                  Ddo good things for

點撥:答案A。由的較大的孩子對客人的評價的反應可知,我們成年人往往更多地關注較小的孩子,因為她更容易受到傷害,而沒有意識到這種關注可能會傷害較大孩子的感情。句中make a big“to do”over the younger one是指更關注更小的孩子

歸納】:表示因果關係的詞有:because, so thatsince, as, so, sosuch…that… ?

?根據同義、近義、並列、替代、說明等關係猜測詞義

例如】:

1.Although he often had the opportunity, Mr Tritt was never able to steal money from a customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to be detrimental to your health. They also regard drinking as harmful. harmful我們可推出detrimental詞義為使危險的?有害的?

歸納】:在句子或段落中,我們可以利用已知的詞語,推斷出生詞的詞義?引出同義詞的標誌性詞語:similarly, like, just as, also, as well等。

? 根據構詞法猜測詞義

     例如】:

根據詞根conscious(清醒的,有意識的),前綴semi(半,部分的,不完全的), 可猜出semiconscious的詞義是半清醒的,半昏迷的

高考示例】:

As you are receiving my note by E-mail, it's wise to remember how easily this wonderful technology can be misused, sometimes unintentionally, with serious consequences. 此句中, misuse是在詞根use前麵加上前綴mis-而構成的, mis-表示?的意思,從而可判斷misuse意為錯用?誤用”; unintentionally是由intention→intentional→intentionally→

unintionally逐步派生而成的,從而推出它的意思為不是有意地? 

(一). 根據前綴猜測詞義
  【練習】:把劃線部分詞彙的中文含義寫在括號裏或選擇。

1. unforeseeable,詞根為see, 前綴fore-早先?預先”,前綴un-”,所以可以猜知unforeseeable未能預見的? 

2.05江西)Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? (           )

(二). 根據後綴猜測詞義 
  【練習】:把劃線部分詞彙的中文含義寫在括號裏或選擇。

1.Insecticide is applied where it is needed. (             )

2.Then the vapor may change into droplets. (             )

3.05 廣東)It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point.(             )

4."Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10," Anaclerio said, "and they're very interactive and creative in that they built a sense of drama based on a subject." (             )
      歸納】:常見詞綴:super(), inter(……之間), able(……), mini(極少的,微型的)micro(極微小的), re(再,反複), sub(分支的,底下), co(共同), post(), pre(), trans(超越;轉換), under(……之下;低於……;不足), hood(狀態;性質;時期), ish(……的;有點兒……); proof(……的;……不能穿透的), scope(), ship(身份;資格;權力;性質), some(易於……), wards(), mis(誤;惡), un(不;非), in(不;非), im(不; 非), dis(), non (不;非)less(不;無), anti(反;防), sino(中國)。如: He fell into a ditch and lay there, semiconscious,_for a few minutes.

(三)利用詞性轉化猜測詞義

例如】:

The aging of the population will affect American society in many ways-education, medicine, and business.

The underlined work “aging” means ______.

A. counting the number of years someone lives    B. the numbers of years someone lives

C. becoming older                           D. making someone looking older

分析】:答案為Cage作名詞用時是年齡的意思,此處作動詞用,意思是老化

? 根據複合詞的各個組成部分的意思猜詞義
  【例如】:1.Growing economic problems were highlighted by a slowdown in oil output. 句中hightlight是由high “高的?強的light “光線組成的,所以hightlight以強光照射?使突出的意思? 

? 根據日常常識來猜詞義
  【例如】:

1.People who refuse to comply with the law will be punished. 受到懲罰的常常是不遵守法律的人?由此推斷出comply遵從?服從? 

高考示例】:

2.Shopkeepers in Modburypopulation 1 500agreed to stop handing out disposable plastic bags to customers on SaturdayThey said paper sacks and cloth carrier bags would be offered instead

The underlined word“disposable’’in the passage probably means…

A acceptable       BValuable        C throw-away        Dlong-lasting

點撥:答案C。由文章第二段可知,Modbury的店主都同意停止向顧客分發一次性袋子。可知,劃線單詞disposable意為一次性的,用完即扔的,故選throw-away

歸納】:利用上下文語境,結合自身生活經驗進行邏輯推理。

十、利用文義及邏輯關係來猜詞義

【高考示例】:

1.Born in Chicago in 1902brought up and schooled in Nebraskathe 1 9-year-old college graduate Ralph Tyler became hooked on teaching while teaching as a science teacher in South Dakota and changed his major from medicine to education

The words“hooked on teaching”underlined in Paragraph 2 probably mean__________

A. attracted to teaching          Btired of teaching

Csatisfied with teaching       Dunhappy about teaching

點撥:答案A。由後文“changed his major from medicine to education'’可知Tyler對教學產生了興趣。

歸納】:理清生詞前後文義,分析前後文的邏輯關係,是遞進、轉折,還是並列。

十一、利用熟詞的新詞性來抽象詞義

高考示例】:

1.However obvious these facts may appear at first glancethey are actually not SO obvious as they seem except when we take special pains to think about the subject

In Paragraph 3take special pains”probably means…

A. try very hard      B. take our time      C .are very unhappy      D. feel especially painful

點撥:答案A。從上文中的“they are actually not so obvious as they seem”及文中的except可知,take special pains與該句語意應相反,可得出答案A正確。take pains to do sth費力去做某事

歸納】:理解原詞的基礎上,分析它的新詞性,結合原詞含義發揮合理想象,概括它的新詞義。

十二、根據上下文的指代關係, 判斷指代內容

根據語境判斷代詞(this, thatittheythemone)或代動詞(dodoes, did)究竟指代什麼。題幹中通常含有refer to。此類題在廣東近七年高考中沒有考過。

一般說來,代詞的指代內容大多在它的前一句中,或者前幾個句子中,有時也在它的後一句中。找到指代的內容後把它放在這個代詞的位置上,看一看這句話是否合理,與前後的內容是否一致,然後再判定它是否為正確答案。

例如】:
      1. However, the question that "moon people" asked is still an interesting one. A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it.
      首先,it指上句中的the question,而the question又指上一段中月球人所提的問題,所以要經過兩次查找才能選出答案。

歸納】:文中的代詞itthathehimthem可指上文提到的人或物,其中it 指代單數名詞(單數可數名詞或不可數名詞),或一個句子;they指代複數名詞主格;them指代複數名詞賓格;one指代單可數名詞等。正確答案應在意義(主要指語法搭配)上和邏輯(主要指思想內容)上都通順。


 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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